دانشجویان پزشکی 87 کرمان
TINEA UNGUIUM : Fungal infection of the nail occurs in four distinct patterns. In the most common form the distal nail plate turns yellow or white as hyperkeratotic debris accumulates causing the nail to separate from the nail bed (onycholysis). The fungus grows in the nail plate, causing it to crumble
INGROWN NAILS : Ingrown nails most commonly involve the large toe. The nail pierces the lateral nail fold And grows into the dermis, causing pain and swelling
SUBUNGUAL HEMATOMA : Trauma to the nail plate severe enough to cause immediate bleeding and pain produces a subungual hematoma. The amount of bleeding may be sufficient to cause separation and loss of the nail plate .Trauma to the proximal nail fold may also cause bleeding that is not apparent for several days. In either case, the hematoma remains until the nail grows out or is drilled to release the blood and relieve the pressure.
LEUKONYCHIA PUNCTATA : These white spots appear in the nail plate as a result of minor injury or manipulation of the cuticle. They either resolve spontaneously or grow out
HABIT.TIC DEFORMITY : This abnormality is caused by biting or picking the proximal nail fold of the thumb with the index finger nail. This results in horizontal sharp grooving in a band that extends to the tip of the nail
ONYCHOLYSIS : Onycholysis is loosening of the nail plate with separation from the nail bed that begins at the distal groove This condition is associated most commonly with minor trauma to long fingernails. Other causes include psoriasis, Candida or Pseudomonas infections, allergic contact dermatitis, and hyperthyroidism.
KOILONYCHIA(SPOON NATLS) : Central depression of the nail with lateral elevation of the nail plate produces a concave curvature and spoon appearance this is associated with iron deficiency anemia, syphilis, fungal dermatoses and hypothyroidism
BEAU LINES : Weeks after a stress that temporarily interrupts nail formation, transverse depressions appear at the bases of the lunulae in all of the nails. Beaul ines are associated with coronary occlusion, hypercalcemia, and skin disease the grooves disappear when the nails grow out
WHITE BANDING(TERRY NATLS) : These transverse white bands cover the nail except for a narrow zone at the distal tip. The Changes are associated with cirrhosis and hypoalbuminemia
PSORIASIS : Psoriasis can produce pitting, onycholysis , discoloration, and subungual thickening. Yellow Scaly debris often accumulates, elevating the nail plate Severe psoriasis of the matrix and nail bed results in grossly malformed nails and splinter hemorrhages
WART : Warts are epidermal neoplasms caused by viral infection. They can occur at the nail folds and extend under the nail. A longitudinal nail groove may occur from warts located over the nail matrix
DIGITAL MUCOUS CYSTS : These cysts contain a clear jelly-like substance and occur on the dorsal surface of the distal phalanx. A longitudinal nail groove may occur from cysts located at the proximal nail fold.
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